Randomness of MySQL Rand

A few days ago, I needed to use MySQL’s rand() function. Some rows seemed to be picked more often than others, so I decided to test the randomness of the function. I tested this function in PHP using the MySQLi module.

$db = new mysqli('host', 'user', 'password', 'database');

To begin with, I inserted 100 rows, with numbers 1 to 100, using the following script:

for($i = 1; $i <= 100; $i++) {
     $query = $db->query("INSERT INTO numbers ( number ) VALUES ( $i );");

I used the following PHP snippet to test and record the randomness. Each round was ran 1000 times, and there were 10 rounds.

for($a = 0; $a < 10; $a++) {
    for($b = 0; $b < 1000; $b++) {         $query = $db->query("SELECT number FROM numbers ORDER BY RAND() LIMIT 1");
        $result = $query->fetch_assoc();

The easy way would be to use print_r to output the results. However, I wanted the final results in CSV format, so I could graph it in Excel.

for($a = 1; $a <= 100; $a++) {
    $str .= $a;
    for($b = 0; $b < 10; $b++) {
        $str .= ',' . $results[$b][$a];
    $str .= "n";
echo $str;


MySQL Rand Average

Although the difference is minor, there is actually a large difference since the rand() function was ran a total of 10,000 times. Since this graph shows the average number of times each number was picked among the 10 trials, the difference between 8 and 12 is 40 in reality. Here’s a graph showing the total number of times each number was picked out of 10,000.

Total Number Picked

Even though the above graphs doesn’t show any “dramatic” difference, one interesting thing to look at is the actual results for each round. Here are the results for the last 3 rounds.

Last 3 Rounds

As you can see, among the individual rounds, there are dramatic difference between the numbers. I’m hoping to find an alternative to MySQL’s rand function (perhaps use PHP’s rand function instead?). If you have any good alternatives, let me know!

One thought on “Randomness of MySQL Rand

  1. Lucas

    Have you compared this to other random functions? Because it doesn’t seem all that abnormal, of course there’s going to be spikes, and of course there’s going to be more in each individual round compared to a bigger average.

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